Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing the information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and application programs and modifying it as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failures. It’s a component of a company’s total informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a wide range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is tables that store data in accordance with a specific scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields called attributes which provide information about data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most used database type currently. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data, avoiding the need to update several databases.

Most DBMSs support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability and other operational concerns such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of various external views (based on different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.

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